What is PERT?
PERT stands for “Project/Programme Evaluation and Review Technique”. PERT is a numerical technique used in the projects in which time can not be estimated accurately such as research and development projects. It is an event-oriented network. Cost is assumed to be directly proportional to time.
What is CPM?
CPM stands for “Critical Path Method”. CPM is based on deterministic approach in which only one time estimate is made for activity completion. Network diagram in CPM is activity oriented. It is used for repetitive type of work and has deterministic approach.
Where should CPM system be used?
It is used for repetitive type of projects e.g construction field.
Where can the PERT be used suitably?
PERT system is best suited to research and development work in which major uncertainties exist.
What is the difference between CPM and PERT?
- It is an activity oriented network.
- It has deterministic approach. Probability value approached to one here.
- Only one time estimates is made i.e. activity duration.
- It is suitable for repetitive type of work where time and cost can be evaluated with fair degree of accuracy.
- It is event oriented.
- It has probabilistic approach. The probability distribution is of the type of beta distribution.
- Three types of times are estimated on the basis which an expected time is derived.
- It is suitable for newer type of projects which have not been performed in the past and no exact assessment of time and cost are available.
How the minimum cost on material is achieved?
The minimum cos on materials is achieved by providing optimum structural dimensions to the various components of the project which can be obtained by employing mathematical programming methods available in the operation research management.
What are the properties of events for understanding the network?
- An event is not occurred until all the activities flowing into it are completed.
- No subsequent activity can start until its tail event has occurred.
What are the possible number of critical paths?
It may be one or more than one and time taken for each critical path will be same.
What is the relation between critical path and float?
Confirmation of the critical path as only when the conditions of zero floats are satisfied. Critical path is path connecting the events with ‘O’ float.
How can the project time be decreased and what is its effect?
It can be decreased by increasing the amount of equipment, labour and employing time, saving materials which means increase in the direct cost.
What are the main advantages of prefabrication?
It helps in achieving speed in construction and economic use of building materials particularly the scarce materials like steel, cement etc.
How modular co-ordination serves as a dimensional guide?
It offers a set of co-ordinated preferred sizes for providing guide to manufactures and offers a design module to guide the designers and architects.
Why the safety practices in the construction projects are not up to the mark?
Because the construction industry is quite unorganized and the workers come from rural background. Most of the labour force is semi-skilled or unskilled class and their employment in the construction projects is of casual nature.
What should be the main aim of any safety programme?
An effective safety programme must insist a sense of safety consciousness in every worker and should aim at zero accidents.
What is a Mass Haul Diagram?
It is a very powerful tool for the earthwork management of a project in which large amount of cutting or excavation and filling or embankment accompanied with the haulage is involved.
Does the swelling or shrinkage allowances be given in the construction of Mass haul Diagram?
Why the study of engineering economy is important?
It is the science of applying economic criteria to select the best from a group of alternative engineering designs.
What is meant by the time value of money?
It means that two equal amount of money at different points of time do not have equal value if the interest rate is not equal to zero.
Where the use of cash flow diagram is strongly recommended?
Cash flow diagram is strongly recommended for situations in which the analyst needs to visualise what all things are involved when flows of money occur at various times.
What is the main purpose of depreciation?
It is to provide for recovery of capital that has been involved in the possession of the physical property.
Where straight line method, for calculating depreciation, is recommended?
It is recommended for all the equipments/assets which have constant demand, do not face any obsolescence during their useful life, and it assumed that their value is reduced at a constant rate. It is widely used in the case of all civil engineering appliances and applications.
What is the use of the depletion fund?
It is created to acquire new properties, equipments such as new mines or construction equipment to give continuity to the enterprise.
What is the recent trend of management?
It is the modern management in the form of mental revolution. It is to revolutionise the mind and the attitude of labour so that he may start associating himself with the enterprise.
What is the weakness of modern management?
It is confined to the technological improvement and not in human areas. It is device to speed up the workers without much regard for their health and well-being. It spoils their initiatives, introduces monotony in them and gives birth to the workers trade union movements.
At what amount an equipment should be hired?
It should be based on the sum of the cost of owning and the cost of fuel for running the equipment.